Halliday’s Viewpoints on Machine Translation
Abstract:Halliday has been interested in machine translation at the end of the 20th century.This paper introduces Halliday’s viewpoints on machine translation and intelligent computing, especially the evolution of his theory on machine translation. Machine translation has developed to a high level in this century. Halliday’s viewpoints will be a valuable reference to the linguistic and technological development of machine translation.
Keywords:Halliday; machine translation; evolution
Why Does the Goddess Sing of Achilles’ Wrath?
Abstract:Western literature has roots in Homer’s Epics. Homer’s Epics originates fromIliad, and the source ofIliadlies in Achilles, to be exact, in Achilles’ wrath. Why does Homer make the goddess sing about the wrath of Achilles? Homer celebrates not so much the wrath of Achilles as the wrathy Achilles. Achilles would rather die brilliantly when he is young than live forever in mediocrity. Such spirit of Achilles deserves Homer’s singing.Achilles’ wrath is the core, key and reversal of Homer’s Epics, which is also worth emphasizing. The cause of Achilles’ wrath is worth eulogizing and singing about. It’s because Achilles’ reputation and friendship are injured. The most important theme of Homer’s Epics is to praise honor and friendship.
Keywords:Homer’s Epics; Achilles; wrath; reversal; reputation
A Visualized Analysis of Feminism Rhetorical Studies Abroad in the Light of New Rhetoric
LI Ke & WANG Tian-tian
Abstract:Feminist rhetorical studies emerged in the 1970s as a new field of Western rhetorical study. This paper uses Citespace to conduct a visualized analysis of 621 journal articles on feminism rhetoric retrieved from Web of Science (WOS) from 1974 to 2021.The cluster analysis method is used to interpret the hotspots and research frontiers of feminist rhetoric abroad in terms of the number of articles, keyword co-occurrence, author co-occurrence, institutional co-occurrence, and strategic coordinates. The results show that the overall number of articles on feminist rhetorical studies abroad is on the increase, and the interdisciplinary research features are prominent. Feminist rhetoric follows the development trend of the new rhetoric in terms of interdisciplinary intersection, practical value, and communicative interactivity. This study can provide important reference values for subsequent feminist rhetorical studies.
Keywords:feminism rhetoric; strategic coordinates; new rhetoric; visualized analysis
On the Covert Violation of Polysemous Semantic Derivations in Verbal Conceptual Metaphor
PENG Yu-hai & WANG Ye
Abstract:There is a conscious concept information operation procedure behind the polysemous semantic derivation, that is the thinking and exchange mechanism of conceptual equivalence. This mechanism has a positive effect on people’s semantic cognition and judgment in a dialectical unity of semantic distinction and semantic association, and forms the unique covert semantic violation in the polysemous semantic derivations of verbal conceptual metaphor. This paper firstly discusses the connotation and characteristics of the covert semantic violation in verbal polysemy, then primarily analyses and observes the operating mechanism of covert semantic violation of action-event to dig deeper constraints and association forms of semantic awareness of verbal polysemous semantic relation, and give a new examination and interpretation of covert semantic relations, cognitive principles of conceptual metaphor and mental characteristics behind the semantic derivation of the polysemous verb. This study will help promote the theoretical discussion on the problems of verb polysemy from the perspective of cognitive semantic analysis and conceptual category (category logic) relationship, and deepen the theoretical research on verbal conceptual metaphor at the level of conceptual object’s semantic logic and semantic consciousness.
Keywords:verbal conceptual metaphor; verbal polysemy derivations; covert violation;action-event; connotation characteristics; operating mechanism
Asymmetric C-command within VP and the Syntactic Analysis ofSteal-type Double Object Construction
Abstract:On the basis of asymmetric c-command within VP, this paper argues that thesteal-type double object construction is encoded with an invisible VP which hosts direct and indirect objects, and empirical evidence is presented to support this analysis. The unaccusative morpheme heading the compound verb-complex is crucial in answering the learnability problem (to solve the POS problem with scarce input); its structure can be reduced to the primary operation MERGE, thus meeting the condition of evolvability(minimalist operation); cross-linguistic differences between English and Chinese might be attributed to morphemes and the ways of their make-ups in externalization, thereby meeting the requirement of universality. Thus, asymmetric c-command within VP is in full accord with the minimalist tenets. Syntactic structures are built up according to the universal principles based on MERGE, and cross-linguistic variations are resulted from idiosyncratic morphological make-ups in specific languages (Chomsky, 1995, 2021c).
Keywords:Universal Grammar; asymmetric c-command within VP; unaccusative morphemes;steal-type double object construction
Transference Dimension, Variance and Off-screen Voice in Stream of Consciousness:A Study of Stream-of-conscious Narrative in Deborah Levy’sHot Milk
Abstract:InHot Milk, Deborah Levy presents a wide diversity of stream of consciousness from the perspectives of conscious transference dimensions, variances of stream of consciousness, as well as off-screen voice of stream of consciousness, reveals the ethical and gender problems in modern British society, and brings to light modern people’s life pursuit and their actual dilemma in life. In the evolution of characters’ consciousness transference dimensions, the focus of narration turns from outside to the inner world and releases the multiple artistic messages of psychic depiction. In addition, Levy combines monologues with off-screen voice dynamically, and thus a minor character’s stream of consciousness in monologue becomes a window for readers to observe the manners and life of the protagonist. The narration of plots and the depiction of psychic activities provide us with a cubic perspective, highlighting the imaginative function of fictional context.
Keywords:Deborah Levy;Hot Milk; conscious transference dimensions; variances of stream of consciousness; off-screen voice of monologue
A Study of Mythical Narrative Tradition: From Methodological Origin to Criticizing Practice
Abstract:Recently, no matter regarded as a literary writing trend or as a theoretic keyword,mythical/mythological narrative has been taken as the hotspot in the field of narrative study.Nevertheless, being an extraneous term that comes from western academia, while generating kaleidoscope-like products during different periods, mythical/mythological narrative shares some intricate methodological backgrounds in its theoretic origin, in the formation of its criticism tradition, even in the coinage of the term itself. It’ll be significant and beneficial for Chinese mythical/mythological narrative study to review the western counterpart by synthesizing its research results, pointing out its problems and showing the changing trends.
Keywords:mythical/mythological narrative; theoretic origin; changing trends; Georges Dumézil; Northrop Frye
A Restricted View on the Cultural Construction in Annotations in the Translation of Russian Literary Works
LI Wen-ge & ZHANG Tong
Abstract:Translation is not only a mechanical transformation of language, but also a channel for cultural communication and integration. Based on our country’s social and cultural background, Chinese readers can understand and accept the culture of other countries and nations by reading literary translations. Therefore, the Chinese translation annotations of Russian literary works play an important role in cultural construction. The study finds that the transmission of source language culture, the reshaping of cultural images and the appreciation of cultural connotations are the three keys of translation annotations. It is necessary to correctly examine the problems in the cultural construction of translation notes, so as to ensure the correct introduction of the source language culture.
Keywords:Russian literary works; translation annotations; cultural construction
Translator Community Analysis of China’s Contemporary Sci-fiction Literature in Japan
Abstract:The translator community survival of the tri-life thought concept of ecotranslation creates an analysis frame for the research on the ecological adaptation of China’s contemporary sci-fiction literature in Japan. The English-Japanese translator community of sci-fiction literature guarantees the translation of China’s contemporary scifiction literature in Japan, and the role played by the Chinese-Japanese translator community is becoming prominent. Meanwhile, English-Japanese translators of sci-fiction literature work closely with Chinese-Japanese translators to open up new models for translating and spreading China’s contemporary sci-fiction literature. The publication media community consisted of Hayakawa Publishing and relevant literary magazines provides a good ecological environment for the ecological adaption of China’s sci-fiction literature in Japan. The interactions between translator community and textual life expand the living space for and promote the spreading of China’s contemporary sci-fiction literature in the world.
Keywords:China’s contemporary sci-fiction literature; Japan; translator community;English-Japanese translation